A short Quiz

  1. holyromanempire Empire which involved the Germans, and had no real power over either Germany or Italy.
  1. slavs People originally from central Europe, but divided into the west, south, and east.
  1. feudalism “System” that involved lords supplying land for the vassal, who in turn provided military service for the lord.
  1. monasticism Idea based on living together in a community.
  1. charlemagne King who established the Carolingian Empire and became the emperor of Rome.
  1. italy The two most famous members of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, Frederick I and Frederick II, tried to create a new kind of empire within this country.

Social Security Problems

Senator Jon S. Corzine One Gateway Center, 11th Floor Newark, New Jersey 07102 Dear Senator Jon Corzine: Under the present social security system, payroll taxes paid by current workers are used to pay retirement benefits for current retired workers. As the generation of Baby Boomers near retirement age, financial predictions indicate that there will be a funding deficit. The debate on solving this major problem centers around which reform would be best for the future. At the moment, there are four major perspectives being discussed. The first perspective argues that Social Security is a promise made by the government to all Americans and only minor changes are required. The second view argues that the program can only be saved by reducing benefits and increasing the retirement age. Another view involves the government investing Social Security funds in the stock market. The final view states that individuals should take responsibility for their own financial security by managing their own savings account. I believe that the first perspective involving keeping Social Security intact and making minor changes is best suitable. First of all, this proposal would provide assistance to individuals who cant provide for themselves or no longer work. Everyone who has paid into the program through taxes deserves to be covered once they retire and if benefits were cut, elders would have to either live with their families or go on welfare. However, I believe that some other changes to this perspective can include gradually raising the Social Security taxes or spending less money on other public issues using the national trust fund. Due to the significant workers outnumbering retirees since the program began, there have been surpluses used to buy Treasury bonds in a trust fund. According to experts, the trust fund would be gone by 2042, but by then the economy would most likely have grown and the revenues for retirement programs would then be increased. As all arguments have their drawbacks, the change into a privatized system with the other three proposals would either require trimming benefits, increasing the retirement age, extreme risk through the stock market, and/or extreme poverty with unwise investment choices. People want to retire earlier and earlier rather than increase the retirement age. By lessening benefits, most retirees would plunge into financial risk with little or no money at all. A workers retirement income would solely depend upon the performance of the stock market, luck, the timing of retirement (whether the stock market was up or down), and other aspects they cant control. If individuals were to manage their own savings account, those who had little experience or money to hire financial advisors would fare much worse than those who had talent or wealth. Also, taking money from those who painstakingly earned all their money would be penalizing them for their success economically. The question of how to solve the social security problem boils down to how much funds it would take to keep the present program. What will it take for future generations to be able to retire? As time ticks down, before the Baby Boomer generation starts retiring, we will soon have to make a logical choice. That choice, I believe, should be to keep the current system, but tweak minor adjustments in the methods of retirement. Sincerely,

Monks and Medieval Europe

A monk was a man who sought to live life divorced from the world, cut off from ordinary human society, in order to pursue an ideal of total dedication to God. Monasticism developed into a community and Saint Benedict established the basic form of monastic life in the western Christian church. The Benedictine rule came to be used by many monastic groups and was crucial to the growth of monasticism in the western Christian world. Benedicts rule divided each day into a series of activities, with primary emphasis on prayer and manual labor. Physical work was required because idleness was the enemy of the soul and prayer was the proper work of God. This Benedictine life was a communal one and each Benedictine monastery was strictly ruled by an abbot, or father of the monastery, who had complete authority over his fellow monks. Furthermore, each monastery possessed land to make it self-sustaining and independent from the outside. Women, called nuns, also began to withdraw from the world to dedicate themselves to God.

The Desert




What place is very arid, dry, and scorched where few plants and animals can survive? The desert, of course! The desert has two climate regions, the Dry Climate Region and the Steppe Climate Region, which are divided because of vegetation. The world has four major climate zones, consisting of the Tropical Climates, Dry Climates, Middle Latitude Climates, and High Latitude Climates. Dry climates cover 1/5 or 8.6 million square miles of the earths surface and the Sahara Desert covers 1/3 of Africa. Well, deserts, as you can see, cover huge amounts of area and homes cant be built there because the lack of natural resources, food, water, and shelter. However, you might find a small area in a desert where water and vegetation are found, usually because of underground springs where food, water, natural resources, and shelter can be actually found. Now, lets see what detailed descriptions of a desert there can be, except yellow, boring, and nothing.

Conneticut and Maryland’s Government Views

Period 2

As with any piece of land, there requires a body of law and government in order to successfully manage a smooth colony. Though in different geographic regions, the colonies of Connecticut and Maryland resemble institutions where a form of government had been developed that were vital to the survival of the colony.


February 4, 2004

Period 8

Webquest Questions

1. An election is the process by which people vote for the candidate or proposal of their choice. 2. In the United States, we have a democratic republic, which allows us to engage in the election process. 3. A presidential caucus is any gathering of individuals to nominate candidates for office or to endorse a policy or program. 4. A primary election is a way to select candidates to run for an office.  In a primary election, a political party holds an election among its own members to choose a person who will represent it in the coming general election. 5. New Jersey holds a presidential primary, which is held on June 8 th, 2004. 6. At the conclusion of the conventions the major announcements will be the nominees for different offices, such as vice president or president. 7. The Republicans will meet in the city of Philadelphia. 8. The city where the Democrats will convene is in Los Angeles.

The Difference getween Chesapeak and New England Religion

Both New England and the Chesapeake regions were settled predominantly by people of English ancestry, but by 1700 the areas had evolved into two distinct societies. This divergence was a result of numerous factors including the notion of communion and family, the motivation of settlements, and the eminence of God and religion. These aspects influenced the lives of the colonists and determined their actions as well.

The primary reason for diversity within the two societies is attributed to the perception of family. In New England, it was viewed as essential to the growth and development of colonies. For example, though social classes and other imbalances occurred, John Winthrop stated:

Important People in History



Three of those present (George Mason and Edmund Randolph of Virginia and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts) refused to sign what they considered a flawed document.

An ailing John Dickinson of Delaware was unable to attend the Conventions final session but had fellow delegate George Read sign his name in absentia, for a total of 39 signers.

Society of the Cincinnati: Washington was elected the first President General. He served from December 1783 until he died in 1799. The second President General was Alexander Hamilton.


Oliver Ellsworth


Random History Facts

September 18, 2003

Period 8


Social Studies

1.     Three states border New Jersey

2.     If I lived in Sussex County and traveled to Ocean, I would be traveling southeast.

3.     Sussex, Passaic, Essex, Union, Somerset, Hunterdon, and Warren border Morris County.

4.     The current Governor is James E. McGreevey.

5.     Morris County got its name after Colonel Lewis Morris, who was the Governor of New Jersey.

6.     The top seven largest New Jersey cities are Newark (273,546), Jersey City (240,055), Paterson (149,222), Elizabeth (120,568), and Edison (97,687).

The Constitutional Convention

The Constitutional Convention – 1787

55 Delegates:

21 who were 40 or younger

  1. Gunning Bedford Jr. (40)
  2. Jacob Broom (34)
  3. Abraham Baldwin (32)
  4. William Few (39)
  5. William Houstoun (32)
  6. Luther Martin (39)
  7. James McHenry (33)
  8. John Francis Mercer (28)
  9. Rufus King (32)
  10. James Madison (36)
  11. Edmund Randolph (34)
  12. Nicholas Gilman (32)
  13. Jonathan Dayton (26)
  14. Alexander Hamilton (32)
  15. John Lansing Jr. (33)
  16. William Blount (38)
  17. William Richardson Davie (31)
  18. Richard Dobbs Spaight Sr. (29)
  19. Charles Pinckney (29)
  20. Jared Ingersoll (37)