Agent Orange was the code name for a militarily developed herbicide mainly used in Southeast Asian jungles. Although the genesis of the product goes back to the 1940’s, serious testing for this herbicide did not begin until the early 1960’s. “Agent Orange”, named after the broad orange band used to mark the drums it was stored in, was tested in Vietnam in the early 1960’s and was then brought into ever widening use during the height of the war in 1967-68. The campaign to spray defoliants in Vietnam was known as Operation Ranch Hand. Beginning in 1962 and ending in 1971, Operation Ranch Hand sprayed over 18 million gallons of herbicide affecting over 5.5 million acres of land. The effects of Agent Orange can still be seen today, a devastating scar engraved in the veterans and civilians of the Vietnam War and on Mother Nature, herself.
Often when describing the Old World civilizations (Paleolithic, Neolithic, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Mesopotamia, etc.), historians separate science from technology arguing that ancient civilizations “applied practical skills rather than any theoretical or scientific knowledge to practice their crafts” (13). However, in Chapter 9, of Science and Technology in World History, James E. McClellan and Harold Dorn suggest a direct correlation between technology and the development of science in Medieval Europe; technological innovations in the fields of agriculture, military, and seafaring paved the way for the Scientific Revolution.
In this book, McClellan and Dorn explore the history of science and technology. The first three chapters span the period from the Neolithic Era to the Egyptian Kingdom and assorted civilizations in between. Technology in the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras was of great cultural and sociological importance to early humans. Science, on the other hand, according to McClellan and Dorn, was essentially nonexistent until after the Neolithic Era.
Many things have originated from ancient Greece including: trial by jury, Greek myths, stories, and fables, democracy, tragedy and comedy, theater, and the Olympics. All Greeks spoke the same language, had common beliefs and shared a common heritage. As in most ancient Greek city-states, men and boys had all the respectable rights; women and girls had very limited freedom; slaves were very important; and toys as well as pets were somewhat common, which included yo-yos, rattles, figures, birds, mice, and tortoises.
Greek mythology is brought through a wide history in the form of word of mouth and the words of poets during festivals. Many Greeks learned about the gods by these sources and their mythology was connected with every feature of their lives. Greek myths are the only things left from the religion and were carried on by followers who told them. The people of Crete believed every natural object had a spirit and that fetishes had special magical powers. These beliefs were made into a set of legends, which only some survived to produce classical Greek mythology. Different parts of a house were dedicated to a certain god, where people would worship and since cities honored one or a group of gods, they built temples for them and held festivals. Some people of the Greek culture have proposed explanations for how Greek mythology developed. They included Euhemerus, Prodicus of Ceos, and Herodotus. They said that myths were “distortions of history and gods were heroes who had been glorified over time; gods were personifications of natural phenomena, such as the sun moon, winds, and water; and Greek rituals were inherited from the Egyptians.” (said in order of names) (1) This religion’s history greatly affects the way that Greek myths are told and how they explain how everything is the way it is now.
When artificial obstacles are encountered, a detachment is essential if the People’s natural laws are breached. These laws include the actions governing everyday life, the thoughts functioning as a basis of understanding, and the emotions influencing our actions. We as humans under the Gods of our choice have the duty and privilege to declare the causes for this disjunction from fatigue.
Italy is a peninsula extending about 750 miles from north to south and averaging about 120 miles across. The Apennines form a ridge down the middle of Italy that divides the west from the east. The peninsula has some fairly fertile plains for farming including the Po River valley in the north, which was the most fertile area. Geography had a significant impact on Roman history. Although the Apennines bisected Italy, they were less rugged than the mountains of Greece and didn’t divide the peninsula into many small isolated communities. Italy possessed considerably more productive agricultural land than Greece, enabling it to support a large population. Rome’s location was also favorable from a geographical point of view, located 18 miles inland on Tiber River, had access to the sea, and yet was far enough inland to be safe from pirates. Built on the famous seven hills, it was easily defended. Since the Tiber could be readily forded, Rome became a natural crossing point for north-south traffic in western Italy. Rome had a good central location in Italy from which to expand. The Italian peninsula juts into the Mediterranean, making it an important crossroads between western and eastern portions of the region. After the Romans had conquered their Mediterranean empire, governing it was made considerably easier by Italy’s central location. Furthermore, as a result of Rome’s location, centralized trading developed along with towns and cities as well as manufacturing.
- The Apennines
- Italy is a peninsula extending about 750 miles from north to south, and not very wide, averaging about 120 miles across. The Apennines form a ridge down the middle of Italy that divides west from east. Geography had an impact on Roman history. Although the Apennines bisected Italy, they were less rugged than the mountains of Greece and didn’t divide the peninsula into many small isolated communities. Italy possessed considerably more productive agricultural land than Greece, enabling it to support a large population. Finally, Rome had a good central location in Italy from which to expand.
- The Han Chinese (Central Asia to Pacific Ocean) and Roman Empires (Mediterranean, Middle East, and western & central Europe) were the most extensive empires the world had yet seen.
- Roman history consists of how a group of Latin-speaking people who established a small community on a plain called Latium in central Italy went to conquer all of Italy and the entire Mediterranean world.
- Early Roman history is filled with legendary tales of the heroes who made Rome great- one of the best known is Horatius at the bridge.