Carbonyl Compound Lab

Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

Organic Chemistry II Lab

April 6, 2000

Physical Constants:




Water H2O 18 0.0 100 1.0
Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 98.08 10.31 337 1.8
Methanol CH3OH 32.04 -97.6 64.6 0.79
Sodium Acetate NaC2H3O2 82.04 324 1.53



UNKNOWN DNP TEST Semicarbazone


Possible identities

(based on MP)

COLOR MELTING  POINT (oC) Color Melting Point (oC)

Osmosis Lab on Carrots

Osmosis Lab

Purpose: To find out how osmosis affects the cells of a carrot.

Hypothesis: If I place a carrot in water and another in a salt solution, then I will be able to see how osmosis affects the cells of a carrot.

Materials: 2 Carrots


2 (250 mL) Beakers





Procedures: 1.Fill two beakers half full with water.

2. Then, add two teaspoons of salt to one beaker.

3. After that, label the beaker with salt as “Salt Solution” and the beaker with water as “Water”.

Classifying Seeds Lab

Classifying Seeds Lab

Purpose: To find out how to develop a classification system for beans and what characteristics can be used.

Hypothesis: If we look at a cluster of beans/seeds, then we will be able to classify them into different groups.

Materials: Paper/plastic cup

Various different seeds or beans, 8 each of 8 different types of seeds recommended

Tray (optional)

Metric Ruler (optional)


Procedures: 1. Get a cup containing 8 different types of beans/seeds with 8 of each type.

Evolution and Extinction

a. One of the greatest mysteries on Earth is the extinction of the dinosaurs. There is not one sole reason for the mass annihilation of dinosaurs as well as other organisms after the Mesozoic Era. Among the most prominent proposals include a global climatic change or the impact of a meteorite from outer space. Although the dinosaurs were incapable to adapt to their new environment, many other animals were able to cope with their habitat such as the mammals, birds, brachiopods, and nautiloids that all survive until present day, emphasizing the fact that not every form of life became destroyed. A particular species, the Tyrannosaurus Rex, could have become extinct from the lack of food, the inability to produce offspring, or competition among the individuals in the species. These basic requirements for a species to evolve could have hindered the processes for the dinosaurs to survive and adapt, therefore causing complete extinction.

Heads, you Win–Lab Report

Heads, You Win

Purpose: To find out how many drops of water and soapy water fit onto the heads side of a clean penny before it overflows.

Hypothesis: If there are plain water droplets, then there would be 17 droplets altogether that will fit on the surface of the penny.

If there are soapy water droplets, then there would be 15 droplets altogether that will fit on the surface of the penny.

If the plain water droplets take up less space on the surface of the penny, then the soapy water will take up more space.


The phylum of arthropods contains many different animals. One group, the insects, is a class full of over one million species. Insects are from the class Insecta having three pairs of legs and a head, thorax, and abdomen with two pairs of wings in the adult stage. It’s hard to imagine, but ninety-five percent of all the animal species on the earth are insects! Insects are incredibly adaptable creatures and live almost everywhere on earth including deserts and even the Antarctic. The only place where insects are not commonly found is in oceans. The characteristics that all insects have include as follows: three main body segments – head, thorax, and abdomen; six jointed legs; two antennae; and an exoskeleton. Also, most insects have one or two pairs of wings. The head is used for mainly eating, sensing things, and gathering information. The thorax protects the body and gives support for the legs and/or wings. The abdomen contains the organs used for digestion and reproduction. Insects are also used for many things including genetic testing. The fruit fly Drosophila has answered many genetic and inheritance-related questions. A few of the most interesting facts I came across include that a cockroach can live for nine days without its head and that dragonflies can fly at speeds of up to thirty miles per hour. Some common examples of insects include honeybees, praying mantises, and termites.

Classifying Matter Lab Report

Classifying Matter Lab

Purpose: How can a homogeneous mixture be separated?


Hypothesis: If the color of the marker contains more than one dye, then the water will distinguish the various colors from each other. If the color of the marker contains only one dye, then the water will only show one continuous color.


Procedure: -First, cut three strips of filter paper, making each three centimeters wide and longer than the height of the cups/containers.

Diffusion Lab Report

Diffusion Lab

Purpose: To find out how diffusion works by using an artificial semi-permeable cell membrane.

Hypothesis: If I use an artificial semi-permeable membrane (dialysis tubing), then I will be able to see how diffusion occurs.

Materials: Dialysis Tubing

Starch Solution



250 mL Beaker



Procedures: 1. Soak a strip of dialysis tubing until the strip becomes soft and opens up on both sides.

2. Then, twist the tubing (approximately 3cm from the end) and tie a piece of string around it.

Elodea Lab Report

Elodea Lab

Purpose: To find out how the Elodea cell looks like and study it under magnification and compare it to different cell parts under a microscope.

Hypothesis: If I use a microscope, then I will see the Elodea cell and its cell parts including the Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Chloroplasts, and Cell Wall.

If I use a microscope to magnify the Elodea cell, then I can compare the cell parts to other cell parts I have already observed.

Materials: Elodea (aquarium plant)

Compound Microscope

Microscope Slide