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Twins and Parents

The experiments we conducted on D1S80 of chromosome 1, and Alu markers of chromosome 16 lead us to the following conclusions about the twins and their parents. But we must take note that there is a large margin of error. First off, the experiment was conducted by a high school molecular biology class. Though we took extreme precaution to use sterile equipment, there is always a large margin of error due to possible cross contamination of DNA. Also, the procedure to swish and spit with saline is not one of the most efficient ways to obtain mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. And also, due to limited resources and time, we could not use the best technology to conduct these tests. But most importantly, we only used two markers (D1S80 and Alu), where most laboratory tests use atleast 8 markers. Furthermore, Alu can only disprove that people are twins by showing different results, but cannot prove relationship with identical band patterns. With that said, we would like to turn your attention to the analysis of the results.

We expected Brett and Brandon to be identical twins because of their amazing similarity in looks. It turns out that for both the Pugach twins, their Alu markers turned out to be + + (positive, positive). And they both had D1S80 bands at 615 bp. Since both of them have identical results, we can conclude that they are identical twins.

We expected Beth and Blair to be fraternal twins due to their slightly different looks. However, we could only read the Alu results. Both Beth and Blair were – – (negative, negative). Their D1S80 bands were unreadable due to a blotched standard, thus we cannot make a definitive conclusion for the Zipko twins.

We expected Marla and Marissa to be fraternal twins also due to their slightly different physical characteristics. Upon reading their Alu results, we concluded that both Marla and Marissa are + – (positive, negative). However, their D1S80 results set them apart. Marla has bands at 580 and 740 bps whereas Marissa has bands at 650 and 820 bps. Thus, due to the differences of the D1S80 gel, we can conclude that Marla and Marissa are fraternal twins.

We also read and analyzed the data from the parents cheek cells. The parents should not be identical to the twins but similar enough to tell that they are related. Note that we only did two markers so there could be some discrepancy.

Mr. and Mrs. Pugach are both + – (positive, negative) for the Alu marker. Mr Pugach had bands at 615 and 410 bps; Mrs. Pugach had bands at 615, 560, and 500 bps. We concluded that Mr. and Mrs. Pugach are Brett and Brandons parents because they share a similar 615 bp band on the D1S80 gel.

Mr. and Mrs Zipko are both – – (negative, negative) for the Alu marker but their D1S80 could not be read. Due to the limited data available, we cannot conclude that the Zipkos are the parents of Beth and Blair, but because both the parents and daughters are – – (negative, negative) for the Alu marker, we can speculate that they are the parents.

Mr. and Mrs. Hidalgo both have + – (positive, negative) Alu marker results. Mrs. Hidalgos D1S80 bands could not be read, but Mr. Hidalgos D1S80 reading showed bands at 620 and 860. Also due to the limited data available, we cannot conclude that Mr. and Mrs. Hidalgo are Marla and Marissas parents. However, we can speculate that because both daughters and parents are (positive, negative) then Mr. and Mrs. Hidalgo are Marla and Marissas parents.

We would like to thank you all for your time and consent to be tested by our molecular biology class. Once again, we would like to stress how informal and unreliable this test was. This was only a basic experimental test of your DNA and can only accurate to a certain point. However, if you are in anyway dissatisfied with our results, we strongly recommend you to get a professional test.

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