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Leaders and Presidents

May 15, 2004

Period 8

Martin Luther King Jr. deserves to be one of the most revered leaders and revolutionists in the 20th century. He has shattered the shackles of segregation, racism, injustice and purified the futures of blacks everywhere. His dangerous spell-binding voice along with his biblical cadences drew countless numbers of people to follow beneath his footsteps. Kings courage was always unswerving and defiant, facing hundreds of death threats and endangerment towards his family. Through his famous speech I have a dream, King demanded several injustices to be righted with words such as: We have come to our nations capital to cash a check. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked insufficient funds.

Christianity and Medieval Civilization

A.     Christianity and Medieval Civilization

1.      Christianity was an integral part of the fabric of European society and the consciousness of Europe

2.      Papal directives affected the actions of kings and princes alike, and Christian teachings and practices touched the lives of all Europeans

3.      The Papal Monarch

a.      Since the 5th century, the popes of the Catholic church had reigned supreme over the affairs of the church

b.      They had also come to exercise control over the territories in central Italy that came to be known as the Papal States, which kept the popes involved in political matters, often at the expense of their spiritual obligations

Chapter 4: Ancient Greece Identifications

Chapter 4: Ancient Greece Identifications

1. Knossus

The Minoan civilization reached its height between 2000 and 1450 B.C.E. The palace at Knossus (near modern Heracleion on Crete), the royal seat of the kings, was an elaborate structure that included numerous private living rooms for the royal family and workshops for making decorated vases, ivory figurines, and jewelry. Even bathrooms, with elaborate drains, like those found at Mohenjo-Daro in India, formed part of the complex. The rooms were decorated with brightly colored frescoes and storerooms held jars of oil, wine, and grain. The remains revealed a rich and prosperous culture with Knossus as the apparent center of a far-ranging sea empire, probably largely commercial in nature.

India- Indentification


India- Indentification

  1. Arjuna/Krishna: Arjuna- warrior prince in the Bhagavadgita to whom Krishna explains the nature of being, the nature of God, and the way humans can come to know God; Krishna- Chariot driver who advises Arjuna in the Bhagavadgita and was the incarnation of the Indian deity Vishnu.
  2. Ganges/Indus River: Ganges- Indias holy river and sacred to Hindus; Indus River- River to the west that flows into the Arabian Sea
  3. Harappans: Civilization covering over 600,000 square miles, from Himalayas to the coast of the Indian Ocean. They have similar language and physical characteristics to that of the Dravidian peoples and are a fascinating enigma.



A short Quiz

  1. holyromanempire Empire which involved the Germans, and had no real power over either Germany or Italy.
  1. slavs People originally from central Europe, but divided into the west, south, and east.
  1. feudalism “System” that involved lords supplying land for the vassal, who in turn provided military service for the lord.
  1. monasticism Idea based on living together in a community.
  1. charlemagne King who established the Carolingian Empire and became the emperor of Rome.
  1. italy The two most famous members of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, Frederick I and Frederick II, tried to create a new kind of empire within this country.

Social Security Problems

Senator Jon S. Corzine One Gateway Center, 11th Floor Newark, New Jersey 07102 Dear Senator Jon Corzine: Under the present social security system, payroll taxes paid by current workers are used to pay retirement benefits for current retired workers. As the generation of Baby Boomers near retirement age, financial predictions indicate that there will be a funding deficit. The debate on solving this major problem centers around which reform would be best for the future. At the moment, there are four major perspectives being discussed. The first perspective argues that Social Security is a promise made by the government to all Americans and only minor changes are required. The second view argues that the program can only be saved by reducing benefits and increasing the retirement age. Another view involves the government investing Social Security funds in the stock market. The final view states that individuals should take responsibility for their own financial security by managing their own savings account. I believe that the first perspective involving keeping Social Security intact and making minor changes is best suitable. First of all, this proposal would provide assistance to individuals who cant provide for themselves or no longer work. Everyone who has paid into the program through taxes deserves to be covered once they retire and if benefits were cut, elders would have to either live with their families or go on welfare. However, I believe that some other changes to this perspective can include gradually raising the Social Security taxes or spending less money on other public issues using the national trust fund. Due to the significant workers outnumbering retirees since the program began, there have been surpluses used to buy Treasury bonds in a trust fund. According to experts, the trust fund would be gone by 2042, but by then the economy would most likely have grown and the revenues for retirement programs would then be increased. As all arguments have their drawbacks, the change into a privatized system with the other three proposals would either require trimming benefits, increasing the retirement age, extreme risk through the stock market, and/or extreme poverty with unwise investment choices. People want to retire earlier and earlier rather than increase the retirement age. By lessening benefits, most retirees would plunge into financial risk with little or no money at all. A workers retirement income would solely depend upon the performance of the stock market, luck, the timing of retirement (whether the stock market was up or down), and other aspects they cant control. If individuals were to manage their own savings account, those who had little experience or money to hire financial advisors would fare much worse than those who had talent or wealth. Also, taking money from those who painstakingly earned all their money would be penalizing them for their success economically. The question of how to solve the social security problem boils down to how much funds it would take to keep the present program. What will it take for future generations to be able to retire? As time ticks down, before the Baby Boomer generation starts retiring, we will soon have to make a logical choice. That choice, I believe, should be to keep the current system, but tweak minor adjustments in the methods of retirement. Sincerely,

Monks and Medieval Europe

A monk was a man who sought to live life divorced from the world, cut off from ordinary human society, in order to pursue an ideal of total dedication to God. Monasticism developed into a community and Saint Benedict established the basic form of monastic life in the western Christian church. The Benedictine rule came to be used by many monastic groups and was crucial to the growth of monasticism in the western Christian world. Benedicts rule divided each day into a series of activities, with primary emphasis on prayer and manual labor. Physical work was required because idleness was the enemy of the soul and prayer was the proper work of God. This Benedictine life was a communal one and each Benedictine monastery was strictly ruled by an abbot, or father of the monastery, who had complete authority over his fellow monks. Furthermore, each monastery possessed land to make it self-sustaining and independent from the outside. Women, called nuns, also began to withdraw from the world to dedicate themselves to God.

The Desert




What place is very arid, dry, and scorched where few plants and animals can survive? The desert, of course! The desert has two climate regions, the Dry Climate Region and the Steppe Climate Region, which are divided because of vegetation. The world has four major climate zones, consisting of the Tropical Climates, Dry Climates, Middle Latitude Climates, and High Latitude Climates. Dry climates cover 1/5 or 8.6 million square miles of the earths surface and the Sahara Desert covers 1/3 of Africa. Well, deserts, as you can see, cover huge amounts of area and homes cant be built there because the lack of natural resources, food, water, and shelter. However, you might find a small area in a desert where water and vegetation are found, usually because of underground springs where food, water, natural resources, and shelter can be actually found. Now, lets see what detailed descriptions of a desert there can be, except yellow, boring, and nothing.

Conneticut and Maryland’s Government Views

Period 2

As with any piece of land, there requires a body of law and government in order to successfully manage a smooth colony. Though in different geographic regions, the colonies of Connecticut and Maryland resemble institutions where a form of government had been developed that were vital to the survival of the colony.