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Archive for Biology

PCR is short for Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR is short for Polymerase Chain Reaction. It is a recently developed procedure used to replicate DNA. PCR requires a template double stranded DNA, Taq polymerase, MgCl2 Cofactor, ddH2O, Primers, and Oglionucleotides to be present. PCR usually runs 30 cycles denaturation at 94oC for 1 minute annealing of primer to template at 50oC for 1 minute and elongation at 72oC for 1 minute.


Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Anisole

Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Anisole


p-Methoxybenzophenone was synthesized from anisole and benzoyl chloride under Friedel-Crafts Acylation conditions in a mixture of aluminum chloride and dichloromethane. A 67.36% crude yield of 3.56 grams with a melting point of 46-55oC was obtained from a theoretical 5.28 grams. Recrystallization of 1.15 grams crude cyclohexane resulted in a .60 gram 52.17% recovery with a purified melting point of 57-61oC.



Osmosis Lab

Osmosis Lab


Purpose: To find out how osmosis affects the cells of a carrot.


Hypothesis: If I place a carrot in water and another in a salt solution, then I will be able to see how osmosis affects the cells of a carrot.

Materials: 2 Carrots


2 (250 mL) Beakers





Procedures: 1.Fill two beakers half full with water.

2. Then, add two teaspoons of salt to one beaker.

Phytophthora infestans, an important plant pathogen and causative agent of the great famine in Ireland (1845), belongs to the




Great Potato Famine of Ireland

Potato Late Blight




Disease: The disease, potato late blight, is caused by a fungus-like organism, Phytophthora infestans that causes disease to potatoes and tomatoes. Entire potato crops can rot in a field or in storage because of the late blight infection. It was responsible for the Irish Potato Famine in the 1840’s that resulted in about one million deaths and the emigration of about 1.5 million people to other parts of the world. Phytophthora infestans is a pathogen (agent that causes disease) of potatoes wherever and is usually not a problem unless the weather is unusually cool and wet. The water is necessary for the spores to swim to infect the leaves of other potatoes.

Letter E

Letter E

Purpose: To find out how the microscope works, how the microscope magnifies, and the parts of a microscope by observing the letter e.


Hypothesis: If I move the letter e to one direction, then it will look like it went the opposite direction when viewed with the microscope.

If I put the letter e onto the microscope, then it will just be magnified in normal reading position.

Materials: Compound Microscope

Microscope Slide


Cover Slip


Letter e


The Life Cycle of a Plasmodial Slime Mold

A spore is released from the fruiting body it’s dispersed, either by insects, animals, rain, or air movement. Upon landing on a suitable location with appropriate moisture and temperature, one to four protoplasts (cell from which the cell wall has been removed) are germinated

The protoplasts are released from the spore’s wall through a pore or fissure

The protoplasts will be either a flagellated swarm cell if conditions are wet, or a non-flagellated myxamoebae cell in dryer conditions.

A diploid (having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus) zygote is formed when two compatible myxamoebae or swarm cells fuse.

Analysis of Analgesics by Thin Layer Chromatography

Analysis of Analgesics by Thin Layer Chromatography


The chemical compositions of four analgesics (Anacin, Excedrin, Nuprin, and Tylenol) were determined by thin layer chromatography in this experiment using ethyl acetate as both the solvent and the elluent. Anacin, Excedrin, Nuprin, and Tylenol were pulverized, dissolved in ethyl acetate, and run plated on a silicon gel to determine their Rf factors. These Rf factors were then compared to the Rf factors of the pure standard samples: acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and ibuprofen. The TLC plates indicated that Anacin contains both aspirin and caffeine; Excedrin contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine; Nuprin contains only ibuprofen; and Tylenol contains only acetaminophen.

Joe Anzalone

Joe Anzalone Part 2

Question 1   Part A: Human v. Neanderthal

Student 3 (Wash. College) v. Neanderthal W. Germ = 77 differences at 450 bp

Normalized value = .171111

Student 9 (Wash. College) v. Neanderthal W. Germ = 65 differences at 450 bp

Normalized value = .144444

Student 6 (Saratoga HS) v. Neanderthal W. Germ = 97 differences at 450 bp

Normalized value = .215555

Student 7 (Saratoga HS) v. Neanderthal W. Germ = 105 differences at 450 bp

Normalized value = .233333

All animals develop from a single fertilized cell into a individual organism with the help of HOM genes in invertebrates and H

Synthesis of t-Butyl Chloride

Title: Synthesis of t-Butyl Chloride


t-Butyl Chloride was synthesized from t-Butyl Alcohol using hydrochloric acid in separatory funnel; isolation of t-Butyl Chloride was done under distillation conditions. The experiment resulted in 6.29grams of purified compound, which is a 64.57 percent yield.