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Greece Report, Part 2

CONTINUED FROM: http://ypen.com/greece-report-part-1/

Title
Author
Description
Antigone
Sophocles
Polynices has been denied burial rites.  Can Antigone manage to give her brother a proper burial?
Oedipus the King
Sophocles
A plague will end when the murderer of King Laius is caught.  What will become of Oedipus?
Oedipus at Colonus
Sophocles
When an oracle predicts that the burial city of Oedipus will have a good fortune, both of his warring sons want Oedipus.
Lysistrata
Aristophanes
Lysistrata is frustrated with the Peloponnesian War and the weaknesses of women.  Can she bring peace to the world and prove her point?
The Libation Bearers
Aeschylus
After Agamemnon’s murder, Orestes returns to Argos for Agamemnon’s revenge.  Will he accomplish his mission?

There were three main kinds of drama: comedy, tragedy, and satyr plays.  Early comedy mocked men.  The characters used themes such as vanity and foolishness.

Tragedy used larger themes, for instance love, loss, pride, abuse of power, and relationships between men and gods.  The layout of a tragedy started with the main character committing a horrible crime and not realizing it.  When he finds out his mistake the world has already started to disintegrate.

Satyr plays took place in between a tragedy’s acts.  Satyrs made fun of the main character’s problem. A satyr is a mythical creature whose upper body is human and the lower body is goat.

Recipe

Greek Dolmades Avgolemono

By: Alexis D. Gutzman  At: http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~mjw/recipes/ethnic/greek/grk-dolmades-avgolomeno.html

_Yiayia's Dolmades_
1 lb. ground beef
1 large onion, chopped
1/2 c. white rice
1 egg
1/2 c. dry mint
1 T. butter, softened
1/2 bunch fresh parsley
dill, if convenient
3-4 T. lemon juice
salt
pepper
water, if needed
Knead all ingredients in a bowl.  If the consistency is too hard, add
water, one tablespoon at a time (up to 4 T.).
Grape leaves are best picked from Grape Vines in the Spring, while they
are still tender.  They can be washed and frozen between layers of waxed
paper and will keep for a year.  They are also available in jars from
some fruit markets (especially ones that carry a lot of Greek/Italian
imported foods).
Depending on the size, you will need 20 to 40 grape leaves (Fila -
pronounced fee'-lah).  Small leaves tend to be more tender.
Boil grape leaves until they are soft, but not tender.  The time will depend
on the leaves.  Fresh ones will only take a minute.
Fold grape leaves around small spoonfulls of meat mixture, sealing
completely.
In a large pot (preferably one with a large surface area on the bottom),
melt 1/2 stick (4 T.) butter.  Arrange rolled dolmades on top.  Do this
all at once, not as you roll them.  Pour 3-4 cups water or chicken broth
over dolmades, cover, and simmer for 2 hours.
_Avgolomono_
1 egg
3-4 T. lemon juice
corn starch
Separate egg.  Whisk egg white mixed with 1 tsp. water;  add yolk and mix.
Add corn starch (she gave no measurement) to lemon juice and stir; add
to egg mixture.  Skim broth off dolmades (it is now a chicken/beef broth
and should be greatly reduced because of the rice) and add 1 T. at a time
to the egg mixture, whisking well.  Egg mixture should thicken.
Remove dolmades from heat.  Arrange dolmades in a bowl for serving.  Mix
remaining broth into egg-lemon mixture.  Stir well and pour over
dolmades.
I apologize for the lack of precise measurements.  She doesn't actually
use measuring cups or spoons, but the palm of her hand and a coffee cup
-- I did the translation.
Alexis Dalianis Gutzman (100% Greek-100% America)

Hippocratic Oath

I swear by Apollo the Physician and by Asclepius and by Health and Panacea and by all the gods as well as goddesses, making them judges [witnesses], to bring the following oath and written covenant to fulfillment, in accordance with my power and my judgment; to regard him who has taught me this techne as equal to my parents, and to share, in partnership, my livelihood with him and to give him a share when he is in need of necessities, and to judge the offspring [coming] from him equal to [my] male siblings, and to teach them this techne, should they desire to learn [it], without fee and written covenant, and to give a share both of rules and of lectures, and of all the rest of learning, to my sons and to the [sons]of him who has taught me and to the pupils who have both make a written contract and sworn by a medical convention but by no other. And I will use regimens for the benefit of the ill in accordance with my ability and my judgment, but from [what is] to their harm or injustice I will keep [them].  And I will not give a drug that is deadly to anyone if asked [for it], nor will I suggest the way to such a counsel. And likewise I will not give a woman a destructive pessary.  And in a pure and holy way I will guard my life and my techne.  I will not cut, and certainly not those suffering from stone, but I will cede [this] to men [who are] practitioners of this activity.  Into as many houses as I may enter, I will go for the benefit of the ill, while being far from all voluntary and destructive injustice, especially from sexual acts both upon women’s bodies and upon men’s, both of the free and of the slaves.  And about whatever I may see or hear in treatment, or even without treatment, in the life of human beings — things that should not ever be blurted out outside –I will remain silent, holding such things to be unutterable [sacred, not to be divulged], If I render this oath fulfilled, and if I do not blur and confound it [making it to no effect] may it be [granted] to me to enjoy the benefits both of life and of techne, being held in good repute among all human beings for time eternal.  If, however, I transgress and purjure myself, the opposite of these.

This oath was invented by Hippocrates to help teach his students about the medical practice.  It was made to ensure care and concern between the patient and the physician.  The Hippocratic Oath describes the rights of patients, and the responsibilities of physicians.  It calls upon physicians to do no harm, use no deadly drugs, and to keep medical information confidential.

Present-Day Cities

  • Argos………California
  • Athens…….Texas
  • Corinth……Montana
  • Marathon….Iowa
  • Memphis….Tennessee
  • Mycenae…..New York
  • Olympia……Missouri
  • Sparta………Oregon
  • Syracuse……Utah
  • Thebes……..Illinois

The Flag

The Two Colors: White and Blue

There are many different interpretations for the meaning of the colors of the flag.  One represents Greece’s expert sailors, defining the colors as a blue sea with white waves.  There is another sailing description having the colors represent a sailor’s clothing.   A further meaning gives a more dreamy feeling with blue as the sky, and white being the clouds.

The Line Pattern

The two colors, blue and white, interchange creating a striped pattern.  Without wind, it is like most flags, limp.  When the wind does blow though, the waving flag may look like the sea that surrounds Greece.

The Number of Lines: 9

The number of lines comes from the syllables in the Greek phrase, “Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος.”  This phrase means, “Freedom or Death.”   “Freedom or Death” was the motto During the Hellenic Revolution against the Ottoman Empire.  There is another meaning which states that the number of letters in the Greek word Freedom.

The Square Cross

The cross rests in the top right corner of the flag.  It represents respect and devotion to the Orthodox Church.  Christianity played an important role in Greek history.  During Ottoman rule, the Church helped the enslaved Greeks retain their culture.  Through secret schools, the Greeks were taught their language and ethnic identity.  Today 98% of Greece’s people follow the Orthodox Church.

Archimedes

ca. 287-212 B.C.

Mathematician

Archimedes was born in the year 287 B.C. in the Greek colony of Syracuse on the island of Sicily.  He was the son of the astronomer Phobias and may have been related to King Heron of Syracuse.

In Archimedes days, mathematics was considered a fine art.  A fine art was something pleasing to the intellect, but had no practical use.  Its sole purpose was for enjoyment.

Today there are many stories about Archimedes’ discoveries.  They show different ideas, theory, and principles that he discovered and we most of us know about today.

One famous one informs about how he revealed a scheme against King Heron.  The king had given his goldsmith the exact amount of gold needed to create a new crown.  The goldsmith made a crown with the proper weight.  However, he suspected that some gold had been switch with silver.  He asked Archimedes to investigate.  Later that day, Archimedes was taking a bath when he noticed that the amount of his body submerged was proportional to the displacement water.  Archimedes knew how to solve his case and ran naked through the streets shouting, “Heuréka!” I have discovered it!  The crown was not pure gold.

How did he find out?  What happened was that he first compared two weights of gold and silver both equal to that of the crown immersed in water.  Then he compared the crown with a weight of silver submersed in water.  The difference between these two comparisons would show that the crown contained some silver.  This led him to what is now called Archimedes principle, “A object immersed in a fluid is buoyed by a force equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the body.”

Another story describes Archimedes studies with the properties of the lever and pulley.  He concluded that with any given force he could move any given weight.  Archimedes went to King Heron with his discoveries and told the king, “Give me a place to stand and I can move the earth.”  An amazed Heron asked Archimedes to demonstrate his idea.  King Heron had a new ship in the harbor, and no crew of men had yet been able to move it.  It was an even more amazed Heron when Archimedes used a simple machine to easily move the ship.

What kind of a machine did he use?  It might have been a cylindrical helix turned by a handle, which would have turned a gear moving the ship.  Just as likely it could have been a simple compound pulley that we all know.

Archimedes’ greatest contributions were those to mathematics. Such as, “Equal weights at equal distances balance.”  His greatest mathematical contributions though were those in geometry.  He tried to find proportions comparing different geometrical figures.  “The volume of a pyramid is one-third the volume of a prism of the same base and height.” was on of his theories.  He also came up with, “The volume of a cone is one-third the volume of a cylinder with the same base and height.”  Also, from his reasoning you can see that, “A circle is a polygon with indefinitely many inestimable sides.  Today we know that the area of a circle is p r².  We know that p (pi) equals about 3.14159, but actually could go on forever.  Archimedes knew the same thing except, like us, did not know an exact pi.  He could however estimate that it was between 3 1/7 and 3 10/11.

With all this knowledge it is easy to assume that he was very dangerous during times war.  After the death of King Heron, the Roman leader Marcellus attacked Syracuse.  Most of the people were afraid, but Archimedes put the machines that he had designed into action!

Against the land forces Syracuse, with the help of Archimedes, launched missiles and masses of rocks into the ranks.   If this did not destroy the army, it threw them into confusion.

Approaching hips were sent to the bottom, again with the help of Archimedes.  Some ships sank from weights fixed to their beams.  Others were suddenly drawn upwards by iron claws and pushed underwater, their stern end down.  Some ships were twisted around on ropes, until they were bashed against the cliffs.   One tale tells of how Archimedes set fire to ships by focusing mirrors on them.

Marcellus had to resort to a siege rather than take the city by force.  Finally, Syracuse had to surrender.  Soldiers were given orders not to kill any citizens.  Despite this, Archimedes life was taken.

No one is quite sure of how he died.  We do know that he was 75 years when he was killed.  Again legends start to come into play.  One story says that he was studying a diagram when a soldier came to take Archimedes to Marcellus.  Archimedes refused to go anywhere until he had finished studying a diagram.  In his wrath, the soldier slew him.  Another version says that Archimedes was carrying a box of mathematical equipment.  Some militia saw him and believed that the box he was carrying contained valuables.  This would have created a problem, and could have ended in Archimedes’ death.

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