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Thin Layer Chromatography and Paper Chromatography Abstract

In order to study distinct components of a mixture, they must be first separated individually. This is achieved through this lab by the technique called chromatography. We used two types of chromatography- thin layer and paper. They both involve a stationary phase which is either the paper or the TLC strip as well as a mobile phase, which could be one of two solvents used: iso-octane-acetone for TLC or ether acetone for paper. Chemicals in a sample separate due to their unique polarities. As a result, nonpolar substances move further than polar substances in this process.

Biological Molecules: Abstract

Throughout biology, structure determines function. As we begin to discover this theme, the lab completed serves as a prime example by testing for starch, reducing sugar, protein, and fat. On an atomic level, each of these molecules is composed of functional groups which distinguish to a certain extent a group’s chemical properties. As a result, these properties can be detected by specific tests such as an iodine test for starch, a Benedict’s test for reducing sugar, a Biuret test for protein, and a Sudan III test for fat. If amylose in starch is present, the effect is a deep, dark blue color when iodine is added because of starch’s unique coiled geometric arrangement. If none are present, then the color will remain orange or yellow. To test for the existence of a free aldehyde group, a Benedict’s test is conducted by heating a solution to form a precipitate that is blue, green, yellow, orange, or red in color; blue means there is no sugar present whereas the closer to brick-red the product is, the higher concentration of a reducing sugar is present. Consequently, a redox reaction occurs with the sugar oxidizing and the Benedict’s reagent reducing. The copper atoms in Biuret solution react with peptide bonds to produce a lavender or violet color, indicating the presence of proteins; otherwise, a light blue color appears if no protein is present. The Sudan III test reveals the nonpolar hydrocarbon groups remaining in the molecule by staining them red orange.

Spectrophotometry Lab Questions

  1. In graph (a), as the concentration increases, the absorbance increases

  1. In graph (b), as the concentration increases, the percent transmittance decreases

  1. If someone were to give you a solution of CuSo4, and to tell you that it had an absorbance of 0.1(or a percent transmittance of 90%), could you calculate the concentration of the solution? If you could how would you do it? Yes you could calculate the concentration of the solution by using the formula A=ebc. It states that A is absorbance (2 – log%T), e is the molar absorbtivity with units of L mol-1 cm -1, b is the path length of the sample – that is, the path length of the cuvette in which the sample is contained (cm), and c is the concentration of the compound in solution, expressed in mol L-1

Access to Genetic Information

 

Ancient Plants

To tell the truth, modern plants are almost the same as the old ones.  One difference however, is that many plants are used differently.  A plant though is still a plant.  Plants then had roots, and leaves and stems, just like now.  Actually, I think it is the other way around.  Plants today are like the old ones then.  Anyways, I have arranged the plants into five groups: food, spices, flowers, trees, and everything else.  There isn’t any other way to sort them.  I should get on with this report and not take all day.

Sickle-Cell Disease

What is it?

Sickle-Cell Disease is a genetic disorder that affects the blood. People produce an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Sickle-shaped red blood cells cannot carry as much oxygen as normal shaped cells.

 

Describe the Genetics.

 

You would inherit sickle-cell disease from your parents, who may be carriers with the sickle cell trait or parents with the sickle cell disease. In order to inherit the sickle cell hemoglobin, you are born with it and if you inherit one sickle gene, you have the sickle cell trait (meaning that you will produce both normal hemoglobin and abnormal hemoglobin. You will usually not have symptoms of the disease). If you inherit two sickle cell genes, you have the sickle cell disease. The allele for the sickle cell trait is most common in people of African ancestry and the allele for the sickle cell trait is codominant with the normal allele.

multicellular heterotrophs

Locker #349, Per.1
Summary of Science Notes

We are going to go onto a magical and awesome trip into the animal kingdom. Here, we will find animals that are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. There are two types of phylums for the Animalia Kingdom- vertebrates which have backbones and invertebrates that have no backbone. Within these groups, they share common ancestors. We are going to venture into the far expanses of the creatures sponges and cnidarians, one of the simplest animals.

Matter

September 23, 2003

Period 3

HW Questions

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. There are different aspects of matter including boiling and melting temperatures.

Matter can be divided into mixtures and substances. Mixtures contain at least two kinds of matter and there is either a homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture. Homogeneous means that all the samples are the same throughout and heterogeneous means that not all samples are the same. Also, substances include elements and compounds. Elements contain only one type of atom and compounds contain more than one type of atom.

Tables of Offspring Traits

Tables of Offspring Traits

 

Jean

Trait

Phenotype

Genotype

Color

Blue

Bb

Gender

Female (Girl)

XX

Eyes

Square

rr

Nose

Round

tt

Teeth

Pointed

Pp

Feathers

Some

Ff

Ears

Round

Ee

Eyelashes

Straight

Ss

 

Maria

Trait

Phenotype

Genotype

Color

Blue

Bb

Gender

Female (Girl)

XX

Eyes

Square

rr

Nose

Round

tt

Teeth

Square

pp

Feathers

None

ff

The Thirteenth Labor of Hercules

The Thirteenth Labor of Hercules

 

As we all may know, Hercules had performed twelve labors assigned by Eurystheus in Greek mythology, obeying Zeuss will. Now, Zeus has assigned Hercules a thirteenth labor that will take place in Lazar Middle School, in the faraway land called America. First, Hercules would have to travel to Montville, New Jersey from his place at Mount Olympus, for he was immortal by now. Upon his arrival at Lazar Middle School, he would have to be the custodian for a day without his super-human abilities and he couldnt be fired for any reason.