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Christianity and Medieval Civilization

A.     Christianity and Medieval Civilization

1.      Christianity was an integral part of the fabric of European society and the consciousness of Europe

2.      Papal directives affected the actions of kings and princes alike, and Christian teachings and practices touched the lives of all Europeans

3.      The Papal Monarch

a.      Since the 5th century, the popes of the Catholic church had reigned supreme over the affairs of the church

b.      They had also come to exercise control over the territories in central Italy that came to be known as the Papal States, which kept the popes involved in political matters, often at the expense of their spiritual obligations

c.       At the same time, the church became increasingly entangled in the evolving feudal relationships

d.      High officials of the church, such as bishops and abbots, came to hold their offices as fiefs from nobles

e.      As vassals, they were obliged to carry out the usual duties, including military service

f.        Of course, lords assumed the right to choose their vassals and thus came to appoint bishops and abbots

g.      B/c lords often chose their vassals from other noble families for political reasons, these bishops and abbots were often worldly figures who cared little about their spiritual responsibilities

h.      Reform of the Papacy

i.        By the 11th century, church leaders realized the need to free the church from the interference of lords in the appointment of church officials

ii.      Lay investiture was the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and invested them w/ the symbols of their office

iii.    Pope Gregory VII decided to fight this practice

iv.    Elected pope in 1073, Gregory was convinced that he had been chosen by God to reform the church

v.      To pursue this aim, Gregory claimed that hethe popewas Gods vicar on earth and that the popes authority extended over all of Christendom, including its rulers

vi.    Gregory sought nothing less than the elimination of lay investiture

vii.  Only in this way could the church regain its freedom, by which Gregory meant the right of the church to appoint clergy and run its own affairs

viii.            If rulers didnt accept this, they could be deposed by the pope

ix.    Gregory VII soon found himself in conflict w/ the king of Germany over these claims

x.      King Henry IV of Germany was also a determined man who had appointed high-ranking clerics, especially bishops, as his vassals in order to use them as administrators

xi.    In 1075, Pope Gregory issued a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders

xii.  Henry had no intention of obeying a decree that challenged the very heart of his administration

xiii.            The struggle b/t Henry IV and Gregory VII, which is known as the Investiture Controversy, was one of the great conflicts b/t church and state in the High Middle Ages

xiv.           It dragged on until a new German king and a new pope reached a compromise in 1122 called the Concordat of Worms

xv. Under this agreement, a bishop in Germany was 1st elected by church officials

xvi.           After election, the nominee paid homage to the king as his lord, who then invested him w/ the symbols of temporal office

xvii.         A representative of the pope, however, then invested the new bishop w/ the symbols of his spiritual office

i.        The Church Supreme

i.        The popes of the 12th century did not abandon the reform ideals of Pope Gregory VII, but they were more inclined to consolidate their power and build a strong administrative system

ii.      During the papacy of Pope Innocent III, the Catholic church reached the height of its power

iii.    At the beginning of his pontificate, in a letter to a priest, the pope made a clear statement of his views on papal supremacy

iv.    Innocent IIIs actions were those of a man who believed that he, the pope, was the supreme judge of European affairs

v.      To achieve his political ends, he did not hesitate to use the spiritual weapons at his command, especially the interdict, which forbade priests to dispense the sacraments of the church in the hope that the people, deprived of the comforts of religion, would exert pressure against their ruler

vi.    Apparently Pope Innocents interdicts worked: for example, one of them forced the king of France, Philip Augustus, to take back his wife and queen after Philip had tried to have his marriage annulled

4.      New Religious Orders and New Spiritual Ideals

a.      B/t 1050 and 1150, a wave of religious enthusiasm seized Europe, leading to a spectacular growth in the # of monasteries and the emergence of new monastic orders

b.      Most important was the Cistercian order, founded in 1098 by a group of monks dissatisfied w/ the lack of a strict discipline at their own Benedictine monastery

c.       The Cistercians were strict; they ate a simple diet and possessed only a single robe apiece

d.      More time for prayer and manual labor was provided by shortening the # of hours spent at religious services

e.      The Cistercians played a major role in developing a new activist spiritual model for 12th century Europe

f.        A Benedictine monk often spent hours in prayer to honor God

g.      The Cistercian ideal had a different emphasis

h.      Saint Bernard of Clairvaux embodied the new spiritual ideal of Cistercian monasticism

i.        Women were also actively involved in the spiritual movements of the age; The # of women joining religious houses grew dramatically in the High Middle Ages

j.        Most nuns were from the ranks of the landed aristocracy

k.      Convents were convenient for families unable or unwilling to find husbands for their daughters and for aristocratic women who did not wish to marry

l.        Female intellectuals found them a haven for their activities

m.   Most of the learned women of the Middle Ages were nuns

n.      In the 13th century, 2 new religious orders emerged that had a profound impact on the lives of ordinary people

o.      Like their founder, Saint Francis of Assisi, the Franciscans lived among the people, preaching repentance and aiding the poor

p.      Their calls for a return to the simplicity and poverty of the early church, reinforced by their own example, were especially effective and made them very popular

q.      Dominicans arose out of the desire of a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman, to defend church teachings from heresybeliefs contrary to official church doctrine

r.       Unlike Francis, Dominic was an intellectual who was appalled by the growth of heresy within the church

s.       He came to believe that a new religious order of men who lived lives of poverty but were learned and capable of preaching effectively would best be able to attack heresy

t.       The Dominicans became especially well known for their roles as the inquisitors of the papal Inquisition

u.      The Holy Office, as the papal Inquisition was formally called, was a court that had been established by the church to find and try heretics

v.      Gradually, the Holy Office developed a regular procedure to deal w/ heretics

w.    If an accused heretic confessed, he or she was forced to perform public penance and was subjected to punishment, such as flogging

x.      The heretics property was then confiscated and divided b/t the secular authorities and the church

y.      Beginning in 1252, those not confessing voluntarily were tortured

z.       Those who refused to confess and were still considered guilty were turned over to the state for execution

aa.  So also were relapsed hereticsthose who confessed, did penance, and then reverted to heresy again

bb. To the Christians of the 13th century, who believed that there was only one path to salvation, heresy was a crime against God and against humanity

cc.   In their minds, force should be used to save souls from damnation

B. The Culture of the High Middle Ages

1.      The High Middle Ages was a time of extraordinary intellectual and artistic vitality; It witnessed the birth of universities and a building spree that left Europe bedecked w/ churches and cathedrals

2.      The Rise of Universities

a.      The university as we know itw/ faculty, students, and degreeswas a product of the High Middle Ages

b.      The word university is derived from the Latin word universitas, meaning a corporation or guild, and referred to either a corporation of teachers or a corporation of students

c.       Medieval universities were educational guilds or corporations that produced educated and trained individuals

d.      The 1st European university appeared in Bologna, Italy, where a great teacher named Irnerius, who taught Roman law, attracted students from all over Europe

e.      Most of them were laymen, usually older individuals who were administrators for kings and princes and were eager to learn more about law to apply it in their own jobs

f.        To protect themselves, students at Bologna formed a guild or universitas, which was recognized by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and given a charter in 1158

g.      The 1st university in northern Europe was the University of Paris

h.      In the 2nd half of the 12th century, a number of students and masters left Paris and started their own university at Oxford, England

i.        Kings, popes, and princes soon competed to found new universities, and by the end of the Middle Ages, there were 80 universities in Europe, most of them in England, France, Italy, and Germany

j.        University students (all menwomen did not attend universities in the Middle Ages) began their studies w/ the traditional liberal arts curriculum, which consisted of grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy

k.      Teaching was done by the lecture method; the word lecture is derived from the Latin verb for read

l.        Before the development of the printing press in the 15th century, books were expensive and few students could afford them, so teachers read from a basic text (such as a collection of laws if the subject was law) and then added their explanations

m.   No exams were given after a series of lectures, but when a student applied for a degree, he was given a comprehensive oral examination by a committee of teachers

n.      The exam was taken after a 4 or 6 year period of study

o.      The 1st degree a student could earn was a bachelor of arts; later he might receive a master of arts

p.      After completing the liberal arts curriculum, a student could go on to study law, medicine, or theology

q.      This last was the most highly regarded subject at the medieval university

r.       The study of law, medicine, or theology could take a decade or more

s.       A student who passed his final oral examinations was granted a doctors degree, which officially enabled him to teach his subject

t.       Students who received degrees from medieval universities could pursue other careers besides teaching that proved to be much more lucrative

u.      A law degree was necessary for those who wished to serve as advisers to kings and princes

v.      The growing administrative bureaucracies of popes and kings also demanded a supply of clerks w/ a university education who could keep records and draw up official documents

w.    Universities provided the teachers, administrators, lawyers, and doctors for medieval society

3.      The Development of Scholasticism

a.      The importance of Christianity in medieval society made it certain that theology would play a central role in the European intellectual world

b.      Theology, the formal study of religion, was queen of the sciences in the new universities

c.       Beginning in the 11th century, the effort to apply reason or logical analysis to the churchs basic theological doctrines had a significant impact on the study of theology

d.      The word scholasticism is used to refer to the philosophical and theological system of the medieval schools

e.      Scholasticism tried to reconcile faith and reason, to demonstrate that what was accepted on faith was in harmony w/ what could be learned by reason

f.        The overriding task of scholasticism was to harmonize Christian teachings w/ the work of the Greek philosopher Aristotle

g.      In the 12th century, due largely to the work of Muslim and Jewish scholars, western Europe was introduced to a large # of Greek scientific and philosophical works, including the works of Aristotle

h.      However, Aristotles works threw many theologians into consternation

i.        Aristotle was so highly regarded that he was called the philosopher, yet he had arrived at his conclusions by rational thought, not by faith, and some of his doctrines contradicted the teachings of the church

j.        The most famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle and the doctrines of Christianity was that of Saint Thomas Aquinas

k.      Thomas Aquinas is best known for his Summa Theologica (A Summa of Theologya summa was a compendium of knowledge that attempted to bring together all the received learning of the preceding centuries on a given subject)

l.        Aquinass masterpiece was organized according to the dialectical method of the scholastics

m.   Aquinas first posed a question, cited sources that offered opposing opinions on the question, and then resolved the matter by arriving at his own conclusions

n.      In this fashion, Aquinas raised and discussed some 600 articles

o.      Aquinass reputation derives from his masterful attempt to reconcile faith and reason

p.      He took it for granted that there were truths derived by reason and truths derived by faith

q.      He was certain, however, that the two truths could not be in conflict

r.       The natural mind, unaided by faith, could arrive at truths concerning the physical universe

s.       Without the help of Gods grace, however, reason alone could not grasp spiritual truths, such as the Trinity (the manifestation of God in 3 separate yet identical personsFather, Son, and Holy Spirit) or the Incarnation (Jesus simultaneous identity as God and human)

4.      Romanesque Architecture

a.      The 11th and 12th centuries witnessed an explosion of building, both private and public

b.      The construction of castles and churches absorbed most of the surplus resources of medieval society and at the same time reflected its basic preoccupations, God and warfare

c.       The churches were by far the most conspicuous of the public buildings

d.      Hundreds of new cathedrals, abbeys, and pilgrimage churches, as well as thousands of parish churches in rural villages, were built in the 11th and 12th centuries

e.      The building spree was a direct reflection of a revived religious culture and the increased wealth of the period

f.        The cathedrals of the 11th and 12th centuries were built in the Romanesque style, prominent examples of which can be found in Germany, France, and Spain

g.      Romanesque churches were normally built in the basilica shape used in the construction of churches in the Late Roman Empire

h.      Basilicas were rectangular churches w/ flat wooden roofs

i.        Romanesque builders made a significant innovation by replacing the flat wooden roof w/ a long, round stone vault called a barrel vault or a cross vault where two barrel vaults intersected

j.        The latter was used when a transept was added to create a church plan in the shape of a cross

k.      Although barrel and cross vaults were technically difficult to create, they were considered aesthetically more pleasing than the flat wooden roofs and were also less apt to catch fire

l.        B/c stone roofs were extremely heavy, Romanesque churches required massive pillars and walls to hold them up

m.   This left little space for windows, and Romanesque churches were correspondingly dark on the inside

n.      Their massive walls and pillars gave Romanesque churches a sense of solidity and almost the impression of a fortress

5.      The Gothic Cathedral

a.      Begun in the 12th century and brought to perfection in the 13th, the Gothic cathedral remains one of the greatest artistic triumphs of the High Middle Ages

b.      Soaring skyward, as if to reach heaven, it was a fitting symbol for medieval peoples preoccupation w/ God

c.       Two fundamental innovations of the 12th century made Gothic cathedrals possible

d.      The combination of ribbed vaults and pointed arches replaced the barrel vault of Romanesque churches and enabled builders to make Gothic churches higher than their Romanesque counterparts

e.      The use of pointed arches and ribbed vaults created an impression of upward movement, a sense of weightless upward thrust that implied the energy of God

f.        Another technical innovation, the flying buttress, basically a heavy arched pier of stone built onto the outside of the walls, made it possible to distribute the weight of the churchs vaulted ceilings outward and down and thus eliminate the heavy walls used in Romanesque churches to hold the weight of the massive barrel vaults

g.      Thus Gothic cathedrals could be built with thin walls containing magnificent stained-glass windows, which created a play of light inside that varied w/ the sun at different times of the day

h.      This preoccupation w/ colored light in Gothic cathedrals was not accidental but was executed by people who believed that natural light was a symbol of the divine light of God

i.        The 1st fully Gothic church was the abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris, inspired by its famous Abbot Suger and built between 1140 and 1150

j.        Although the Gothic style was a product of northern France, by the mid-13th century, French Gothic architecture had spread to virtually all of Europe

k.      By the mid-13th century, French Gothic architecture was seen most brilliantly in cathedrals in Paris (Notre-Dame), Reims, Amiens, and Chartres

l.        A Gothic cathedral was the work of the entire community

m.   All classes contributed to its construction; Master masons, who were both architects and engineers, designed them, and stonemasons and other craftspeople were paid a daily wage and provided the skilled labor to build them

n.      A Gothic cathedral symbolized the chief preoccupation of a medieval Christian community, its dedication to a spiritual ideal

o.      As we have observed before, the largest buildings of an era reflect the values of its society

p.      The Gothic cathedral, w/ its towers soaring toward heaven, gave witness to an age when a spiritual impulse underlay most aspects of its existence

C.     The Expansion of Medieval Europe: The Crusades

1.      As it developed, European civilization remained largely confined to one geographical area; Some Europeans, especially merchants, had contacts w/ parts of Asia and Africa, and Viking explorers even reached the eastern fringes of North America in the 10th and 11th centuries

2.      But at the end of the 11th century, Europeans began their 1st concerted attempt to expand beyond the frontiers of Europe by conquering the land of Palestine

3.      The First Crusades

a.      The Crusades were based on the idea of a holy war against the infidels or unbelievers

b.      The wrath of Christians was directed against the Muslims, and at the end of the 11th century, Christian Europe found itself w/ a glorious opportunity to attack them

c.       The immediate impetus for the Crusades came when the Byzantine emperor, Alexius I, asked Pope Urban II for help against the Seljuk Turks, who were Muslims

d.      The pope saw a golden opportunity to provide papal leadership for a great cause: to rally the warriors of Europe for the liberation of Jerusalem and the Holy Land (Palestine) from the infidel

e.      At the Council of Clermont in southern France near the end of 1095, Urban II challenged Christians to take up their weapons and join in a holy war to recover the Holy Land

f.        The pope promised remission of sins and the enthusiastic crowd cried out in response: It is the will of God, it is the will of God.

g.      Three organized crusading bands of noble warriors, most of them French, made their way eastward

h.      The crusading army probably numbered several thousand cavalry and as many as ten thousand infantry

i.        After the capture of Antioch in 1098, much of the crusading host proceeded down the Palestinian coast, evading the well-defended coastal cities, and reached Jerusalem in June 1099

j.        After a 5-week siege, the Holy city was taken amid a horrible massacre of the inhabitantsmen, women, and children

k.      After further conquest of Palestinian lands, the crusaders ignored the wishes of the Byzantine emperor and organized four Latin crusader states

l.        B/c the crusader kingdoms were surrounded by Muslims hostile to them, they grew increasingly dependent on the Italian commercial cities for supplies from Europe

m.   Some Italian cities, such as Genoa, Pisa, and above all, Venice, grew rich and powerful in the process

n.      But it was not easy for the crusader kingdoms to maintain themselves

o.      Already by the 1120s, the Muslims had begun to strike back

p.      The fall of one of the Latin kingdoms in 1144 led to renewed calls for another Crusade, especially from the monastic firebrand Saint Bernard of Clairvaux

q.      Bernard even managed to enlist 2 powerful rulers, but their Second Crusade proved to be a total failure

r.       The Third Crusade was a reaction to the fall of the Holy City of Jerusalem in 1187 to the Muslim forces under Saladin

s.       Now all of Christendom was ablaze w/ calls for a new Crusade

t.       Three major monarchs agreed to lead their forces in person: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I the Lionhearted of England, and Philip II Augustus, king of France

u.      Some of the crusaders finally arrived in the East by 1189 only to encounter problems

v.      Frederick Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a local river, and his army quickly disintegrated

w.    The English and French arrived by sea and met w/ success against the coastal cities, where they had the support of their fleets, but when they moved inland, they failed miserably

x.      Eventually, after Philip went home, Richard the Lionhearted negotiated a settlement whereby Saladin agreed to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem

4.      The Later Crusades

a.      After the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope Innocent III initiated the Fourth Crusade

b.      On its way to the East, the crusading army became involved in a dispute over the succession to the Byzantine throne

c.       The Venetian leaders of the Fourth Crusade saw an opportunity to neutralize their greatest commercial competitor, the Byzantine Empire

d.      Diverted to Constantinople, the crusaders sacked the great capital city of Byzantium in 1204 and set up the new Latin Empire of Constantinople

e.      Not until 1261 did a Byzantine army recapture Constantinople

f.        In the meantime, additional Crusades were undertaken to re-conquer the Holy Land

g.      All of them were largely disasters, and by the end of the 13th century, the European military effort to capture Palestine was recognized as a complete failure

D.     The Late Middle Ages: A Time of Troubles in Europe

1.      At the beginning of the 14th century, changes in weather patterns in Europe ushered in what has been called a little ice age

2.      Shortened growing seasons and disastrous weather conditions, including heavy storms and constant rain, led to widespread famine and hunger; Soon an even greater catastrophe struck

3.      The Black Death

a.      The Black Death of the mid-14th century was the most devastating natural disaster in European history, ravaging Europes population and causing economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval

b.      Contemporary chroniclers lamented how parents abandoned their children; People were horrified by an evil force they could not understand and by the subsequent breakdown of all normal human relations

c.       Bubonic plague was the most common and most important form of plague in the diffusion of the Black Death and was spread by black rats infested w/ fleas who were host to the deadly bacterium Yersinia pestis

d.      This great plague originated in Asia

e.      After disappearing from Europe and the Middle East in the Middle Ages, bubonic plague continued to haunt areas of southwestern China

f.        Rats accompanying Mongol troops spread the plague into central and northwestern China and into Central Asia in the mid-13th century

g.      From there, trading caravans brought the plague to Caffa, on the Black Sea, in 1346

h.      The plague reached Europe in October 1347 when Genoese merchants brought it from Caffa to the island of Sicily off the coast of Italy; It quickly spread to southern Italy and southern France by the end of 1347

i.        Diffusion of the Black Death followed commercial trade routes

j.        In 1348, it spread through Spain, France, and the Low Countries and into Germany

k.      By the end of that year, it had moved to England, ravaging it in 1349

l.        By the end of 1349, the plague had reached northern Europe and Scandinavia

m.   Eastern Europe and Russia were affected by 1351

n.      Mortality figures for the Black Death were incredibly high

o.      Especially hard hit were Italys crowded cities, where 50 to 60 % of the people died

p.      In England and Germany, entire villages simply disappeared

q.      In Germany, of approximately 170,000 inhabited locations, only 130,000 were left by the end of the 14th century

r.       It has been estimated that out of a total European population of 75 million, as many as 38 million people may have died of the plague between 1347 and 1351

s.       Not until the mid-16th century did Europe begin to re-attain its 13th century population levels

t.       The attempt of contemporaries to explain the Black Death and mitigate its harshness led to extreme sorts of behavior

u.      To many, either the plague had been sent by God as a punishment for humans sins, or it had been caused by the devil

v.      Some, known as the flagellants, resorted to extreme measures to gain Gods forgiveness

w.    Groups of flagellants, both men and women, wandered from town to town, flogging each other with whips to beg the forgiveness of a God who, they felt, had sent the plague to punish humans for their sinful ways

x.      The flagellants created mass hysteria wherever they went, and authorities worked overtime to crush the movement

y.      An outbreak of virulent anti-Semitism also accompanied the Black Death

z.       Jews were accused of causing the plague by poisoning town wells

aa.  The worst pogroms against this minority were carried out in Germany, where more than sixty major Jewish communities in Germany had been exterminated by 1351

bb. Many Jews fled eastward to Russia and especially to Poland, where the king offered them protection

cc.   Eastern Europe became home to large Jewish communities

4.      Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval

a.      The death of so many people in the 14th century also had severe economic consequences

b.      Trade declined, and some industries suffered greatly

c.       Florences woolen industry, one of the giants, had produced 70,000 to 80,000 pieces of cloth in 1338; in 1378, it was yielding only 24,000 pieaces

d.      Both peasants and noble landlords were also affected

e.      A shortage of workers caused a dramatic rise in the price of labor, while the decline in the number of people lowered the demand for food, resulting in falling prices

f.        Landlords were now paying more for labor at the same time that their rental income was declining

g.      Concurrently, the decline in the number of peasants after the Black Death made it easier for some to convert their labor services to rent, thus freeing them from serfdom

h.      But there were limits to how much the peasants could advance

i.        They faced the same economic hurdles as the lords, who also attempted to impose wage restrictions and reinstate old forms of labor service

j.        New governmental taxes also hurt; Peasant complaints became widespread and soon gave rise to rural revolts

k.      The English Peasants Revolt of 1381 was the most prominent of all

l.        After the Black Death, the English peasants had enjoyed improved conditions w/ greater freedom and higher wages or lower rents

m.   Aristocratic landlords had fought back w/ legislation to depress wages and an effort to re-impose old feudal dues

n.      The most immediate cause of the revolt, however, was the monarchys attempt to raise revenues by imposing a poll tax, a flat charge on each adult member of the population

o.      Peasant sin eastern England refused to pay the tax and expelled the collectors forcibly from their villages

p.      Rebellion spread as peasants burned down the manor houses of aristocrats, lawyers, and government officials

q.      Soon, however, the young king, Richard II, w/ the assistance of aristocrats, arrested hundreds of the rebels and ended the revolt

r.       Although the peasant revolts sometimes resulted in short-term gains for the participants, the uprisings were relatively easily crushed and their gains quickly lost

s.       Accustomed to ruling, the established classes easily combined and stifled dissent

t.       Nevertheless, the revolts of the 14th century had introduced a new element to European life; henceforth, social unrest would be a characteristic of European history

5.      Political Instability

a.      Famine, plague economic turmoil, and social upheaval were not the only problems of the 14th century

b.      War and political instability must also be added to the list

c.       Of all the struggles that ensued in the 14th century, the Hundred Years War was the most violent

d.      The Hundred Years War

i.        In the 13th century, the English king, Henry III, still held one small possession in France known as the duchy of Gascony

ii.      As duke of Gascony, the English king pledge loyalty as a vassal to the French king, but when King Philip VI of France seized Gascony in 1337, the duke of GasconyKing Edward III of Englanddeclared war on Philip

iii.    The attack on Gascony was a convenient excuse; Edward III had already laid claim to the throne of France after the senior branch of the Capetian dynasty had become extinct in 1328

iv.    The Hundred Years War began in a burst of knightly enthusiasm

v.      The French army of 1337 still relied largely on heavily armed noble cavalrymen, who looked w/ contempt on foot soldiers and crossbowmen, whom they regarded as social inferiors

vi.    The English, too, used heavily armed cavalry, but they relied even more on large numbers of paid foot soldiers

vii.  Armed w/ pikes, many of these soldiers had also adopted the longbow, invented by the Welsh

viii.            The longbow had greater striking power, longer range, and more rapid speed of fire then the crossbow

ix.    The 1st major battle of the Hundred Years War occurred in 1346 at Crecy, just south of Flanders

x.      The larger French army followed no battle plan but simply attacked the English lines in a disorderly fashion

xi.    The arrows of the English archers decimated the French cavalry

xii.  It was a stunning victory for the English and the foot soldier

xiii.            The Battle of Crecy was not decisive, however

xiv.           The English simply did not possess the resources to subjugate all of France, but they continued to try

xv. The English king, Henry V, was especially eager to achieve victory

xvi.           At the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the heavy, armor-plated French knights attempted to attack across a field turned to mud by heavy rain; the result was a disastrous French defeat and the death of fifteen hundred French nobles

xvii.         Henry went on to forge an alliance w/ the duke of Burgundy, making the English masters of northern France

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